As part of our writing practice, we have researched and written about the Winter Olympic sports. We hope you learn from our articles!
Olympic Figure Skating by Scarlet
Do you know about Figure Skating? Well, there are a couple things you should know.
Figure skating is dancing on ice doing tricks. Figure skating is either done in groups or duos. There is a short program and a long program. The programs includes things like toe jumps, edge spins, pair lifts, throw jumps, and death spirals. Toe jumps are jumps that start on your toe. Edge spins are spins that are on the edge of the skating blade. Pair jumps is where two people lift up the girl dancing. Throw jumps are jumps where a man lifts a girl up and throws her. Death spirals are jumps where you would spin and make it look like they would land on their face. Figure skating dancers will be judged by how well they land, spin, and how well they dance to the music. There are a few events that you should know about. There is men single, pair skating, ladies single, skating, and ice dancing. Men single and ladies single are the same, they both dance all alone. Pair skating is two people dance together. Skating is just one person dancing and jumping. Ice dancing is two people dancing and doing required jumps, spins and more.
There is not much equipment for figure skating. There are only two things you would need for figure skating. The equipment is ice skating boots, and a bag. The ice skating boots are used to glide across the ice and jump on ice. The bag is used to carry the ice skating boots, dress, and jacket.
Figure Skating has been around for centuries. It started in the mid- nineteenth century. A man named Robert Jones was the first known person to figure skate. Jackson Hains is considered the father of figure skating even though Jackson Hains was the first known to figure skate. The first composition was in a England style. Then came a new style in 1860s. Then came the first international game. The first Skating union was in 1892. The first championships were held in 1894. The world championship happened. in 1896.
As you can see figure skating is a very interesting winter Olympic sport. I hope you have learned more about figure skating.
“Wikipedia.” olympics: Olympic Figure Skating. web. 2-1 Thursday.
“http://www.olympic.org/sports” olympic Figure Skating. web. 2-2 Friday
“https://www.pyeongchang2818.com/en/index” olympic Figure skating web Friday 2-2.
Curling by Jennifer
You know the usual Olympic sports, hockey, skiing, figure skating, but have you ever heard of curling?
In curling, each team has four players. The players throw the stone in a certain order. Here is the order: lead, second, third (vice skip), and skip (last player). Each player receives two stones. In all, there is a total of eight stones per curling team. Each team takes a turn sliding the heavy stone across the ice. When the stone has been slid, the players use their brooms to control the movement and speed of the curling stone. The aim of the game is to get your team’s stones closer to your house centre than the other team’s stones. It is very similar to Shuffleboard. You could say there’re cousins. One game usually lasts about two hours and forty minutes. There are three events this year — Men’s Curling, Women’s Curling, and Mixed Doubles. Mixed Doubles is men and women playing the usual curling game, but together! As for the other events, there is no difference and they also just play curling normally.
According to evidence, curling existed in the 16th century. The first match of the game was recorded by Paisly Abbey. Curling was one of the first sports that women and girls enjoyed and played often. Unlike present day, they just used river stones. River stones were not as good as our fancy granite stones. In Canada, it is said that they used irons, and were the only ones to use irons. Weavers relaxed by participating in a curling match. Did you know that the “curl” part in “curling” is describing the way the stone moves? This fun game has only been an Olympic sport since 1998! Since then, Canada has been the champion.
Even though this is a simple game, it requires a lot of equipment. Broom – the broom is used for controlling the curling stone.
Curling Stone or just “stone” – this is what the athletes try to get in their house centre.
Curling Sheet – the curling sheet is the sheet of ice that is played on. The Special Shoes – special shoes include gripper shoes and slider shoes
Other equipment would be a stopwatch, curling pants, and gloves or mittens.
So, now you can add “Curling” to your list of Olympic Sports to watch. Also, now you know what might be going on when watching the games on your T.V.
“Curling”. Sports. olympic.org. 5 January, 2018.
“Curling”. Pyeongchang 2018. pyeongchang2018.com. 5 January, 2018.
“Curling”. Olympic Sports Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/. index.php?title=Curling&oldid=82234103. 6 January, 2018.
Freestyle skiing by Ashlynn
Most events in the Winter Olympics are good, but freestyle skiing is better. Why you ask? Let me show you why.
This sport is often called hotdogging. It is called hotdogging because it means tricks on skies. It was popularized in the 1950`s. Then, they practiced in the 1930. It is often called free skiing, jibbing, and many other names. This is only the beginning. The rest is more interesting.
In the basics, we have all the events. Here they are:
The half pipe – the half pipe is a long cylinder that they cut in half. Moguls – moguls are little and big bumps on the entire trail. Aerials – these are the best. They jump off of a 2-4 meter jump that sends them 6 or more meters high.
All skiers have the following:
Twin tip skies – twin tip skies are skies that curve up.
Ski hat – a hat that’s comfortable, but is a helmet
Ski bindings – A lock that you lock your ski boot in so you don’t lose a ski.
Wikipedia. Freestyle skiing. wikipedia.org. 14 February
Wikipedia. Freestyle skiing. wikipedia.org. 14 February 2018.
Freestyle Skiing by Chloe
Have you heard of Freestyle Skiing? Whether you have or haven’t this will tell you more about this sport.
Did you know that both men and women compete in the same events? They don’t compete together though.
These are all of the Freestyle Skiing events for this year: Aerials, Halfpipe, Moguls, Ski Cross, and Slopestyle. Aerials are where they ski off of 2-4 meter jumps, that can propel you up to six meters in the air. Halfpipe is where they go through the Halfpipe and perform flips and tricks. Moguls are these mounds of snow that skiers have to perform sharp turns and maneuvers around the moguls. The Slopestyle is where athletes jump off a huge mound and do at least three jumps. Ski Cross is based on the Board Cross. Four people compete to get to the finish line. There are a series of jumps and ridges.
This sport is sometime called “Hotdogging”. It is called this because hotdogging means to go crazy and do wild things. You win at this by scoring the most points scored by the judges.
Freestyle Skiing originated in the early 1930’s. It was considered a demonstration sport. Demonstration sport means that you play it to promote the sport. There are records of it in the twentieth century in Italy and Austria. The FIS said that it was too dangerous and made a lot of safety modifications. FIS stands for International Ski Federation. The FIS said that it was too dangerous even after the safety modifications they shut it down. Then they remade it a sport.
Twin tip skies – skis that are tipped at both ends.
When you are doing races you will sometimes use specially designed skis.
Ski binding – They keep your feet attached to the skis.
Helmet – a piece of hard material that protects your head.
Ski Boots – a special pair of boots that connect to the ski bindings.
Poles – two long pieces of metal used to push yourself forward.
Skiwear – a light winter jacket and pants.
Goggles – like glasses but they come closer to your face.
“Freestyle Skiing” https://www.olympic.org/sports 2-7-18
“Freestyle Skiing” https://www.pyeongchang2018.com/en/sports/freestyle- skiing 2-7-18
Ski Jumping by Avery S
Have you ever wondered what is ski jumping and where did it come from? Let’s learn about the basics, history, and equipment of ski jumping.
When it comes to ski jumping, the hills are important. Hill size or (HS) is really important. (HS) varies on the event, there are lots of events in ski jumping. The events are: Men’s K120 individual, Men’s K120 team, Men K90 individual, and Woman K90 individual. Now let’s learn about the construction point or (K- point). The K- point or construction point is the line used for athletes to reach as their goal. Two points are awarded every meter you go across the K- point, but two points are reduced every meter you fall short of the K- point. Now lets learn about the hills and how the many varieties of them. The first one is the small hill which is about 45 meters K- point and 50 meters (HS), The medium hill which is about 45-75 meters k- point and 50-84 in (HS), the normal hill which is about 75-99 k-point and 85-109 (HS), and large hill which is more than 100 k- point and more than 110 (HS).
Ski jumping is a dangerous sport. In order to go faster and protect yourself, skiers have to have a lot of equipment. The first and most important piece is the skis. An athlete’s skis must fit perfectly and must weigh very little, so they have a system to fit them perfectly. In the system, you multiply the skiers weight in pounds by 703, then divide by his or her height in square inches. Once you’ve done that, you get your BPM, or mass index. Ski jumping skis are 145th of the jumper’s height.The binding is mounted parallel to the run direction. Boots are really important when it comes to ski jumping. Ski jumper’s boots let them lean forward to become as aerodynamic as possible. A connection cord is the thing keeping the skis connected to the boots and stops the skis from wobbling. The suit of a ski jumper has many things about it that help the athletes go faster. Ski jumping suits have 4.0 to 6.0 inches of thickness and must conform to standing up body with a tolerance of two centimeters. Ski jumping suits also have more tolerance around the sleeves and crotch where four centimeters is the max tolerance. When it comes to ski jumping, everything is important. In ski jumping, most gloves have goat leather as the innermost layer. Ski jumping gloves have the same microfiber material as a ski jumping suit, but only on the outside of the glove. The helmet has a much different uses. A ski jumping helmet protects the head in case of a crash. Also, ski jumping helmets are aerodynamic so they can go as fast as possible. The last piece of equipment needed is goggles. Goggles are used to protect the eyes from tearing up.
Ski jumping has been around for a very long time. Did you know that the first ski jumping can be traced back to 1808? The first ski jumping contest ever was in the early nineteenth century. Also in the nineteenth century ski jumping became official sport in the Olympics the date was 1924. At a unknown date Josef Bradl became the first to jump 100 meters. At an also unknown date Sepp Bradl became the first to jump over 100 meters. In 1994 Toni Nieminen landed at 203 meters. And finally in 2003 Daniela Iraschko became the first female to reach 200 meters.
I hope you like my explanation on what ski jumping is. I hope you learned enough about the basics, equipment, and the history of ski jumping.
“Ski jumping” https://www.pyeongchang2018.com/en/ sports/ski-jumping 2-9-18
“Ski jumping” https://www.olympic.org/sports 2-9-18
“Ski jumping” “https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php? title=Ski_jumping&oldid=82212294″7 2-9-18
Snowboarding by Avery
Snowboarding is a very interesting and fun sport!
You stand on the snowboard and glide down the snow covered mountain. It was inspired by skateboarding, sledding, surfing, and skiing. Snowboarding was developed in the U.S. in the 1960’s. The first “real” snowboard was made by a wooden plank that was flexible and had a water ski trapped onto it. Snowboarding also has several Olympic events.
Jibbing: Jibbing was performing tricks on non-standard surfaces. Jib definition: (verb) action of jumping, sledding, or riding on top of objects other than snow.
Free riding: For free riding, you alter between various styles in one motion on a naturally rugged terrain.
Freestyle: Freestyle is any riding that includes performing tricks. Done on man made features like rails, boxes, and jumps.
Alpine snowboarding: In free carving, there is little jumping involved. You do things like free carving. Free carving is like riding a rollercoaster.
Slope style: You have to perform tricks that include rails and boxes. To win, you to chose the one of the most difficult obstacles.
Big air: Perform tricks after launching off of a man made jump. Some competitions judge on height and distance of the jump.
Half-pipe: Semicircle ditch with walls between 8-23 feet (7.0 m.) Preform tricks while going from side to the other side while doing a trick in the air.
Boarder cross: Jumps, berms, and other obstacles. Called Boarder X or Snowboard.
Snowboard Racing: A series of turning indicators (gates). Distance apart from the indicators. Three main formats – Single person, parallel course, and multiple people on the course at one time.
Snowboarding began in 1965. Sherman Poppen (an engineer) invented the snowboard by making a toy for his daughters. He tied two skis together and attached a rope to one end to pull them down the hill. As they were pulled, they didn’t sit, they stood. Now the snowboards are not skis tied together, they are one board.
The equipment you need for snowboarding is goggles, boots, warm waterproof gloves, a warm coat, snow pants, the snowboard, helmet, a hat that can fit under your helmet, and bindings. The bindings are the clips that hold your feet onto the snowboard.
Now you understand why snowboarding is a fun and interesting sport.
“Snowboarding.” Wikipedia. com. 2-9-2018
Olympic Hockey by Dax
Ice hockey is in the Winter Olympic and it is awesome. It is one of the main events in the Winter Olympics.
Basics: Ice hockey is a game where people skate and try to score. Ice hockey is usually played with six player. One of them is a goalie and the rest go out to score a goal. The game is played on ice. Usually they play it with a rink. Did you know that the N.H.L stand for National Hockey League? Ice hockey was played on a frozen lake and now it is played in a rink. Ice hockey is a physical game.
The men’s event is six on six. The woman’s event is six on six.
The hockey puck is used to score a point. The hockey stick is used to hit the hockey puck into the goal. Ice skates are used to skate. Shoulder pads are used to protect your shoulders.
Gloves are used so your hands don’t get cold. You need a helmet so a puck doesn’t knock you out. Elbow pads are used to protect your elbows. Jock or Jill strap is important. Shorts help you to not get snow in your equipment. Neck guard protects your neck.
Hockey was introduced in the nineteenth to eighteenth century in America. Stick games like hockey dated back to Christian time. The name hockey has no clear origin. Hockey started in the U.K and went to America. The professional hockey base was created in 1910. Did you know that the N.H.L is the National Hockey League?
In conclusion, ice hockey is a surprising event in the Winter Olympics and it is my favorite.
“ Ice hockey .”wikipedia.https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php? title=Ice_hockey&oldid=821011703. 12
“Ice hockey .”https://www.pyeongchang2018.com/en/index.
12 February 2018.
“Ice hockey.” http://www.olympic.org/sports. 12 February 2018.
Skeleton by Olivia
Around the time of the Winter Olympics, if you watch them, then there will always be that one sport that you know nothing about. So you’ll want to know more about it. You will want a good place to research it. In this case, the thing you would be researching is the sport called “skeleton”. So read on!
Skeleton is a Winter Olympics event. It’s done on the same track as Bobsled and Luge, but it’s not the same:
Skeleton is done with one person on a toboggan, facing headfirst into the icy track that’s laid out for them and their toboggan1 to race down as fast as they possibly can.
Skeleton is your typical Olympic race: people can win or lose by a 100th of a second. This seems like it would be really annoying, to come a 100th of a second behind the person who got the gold medal and be in last place at the same time.
The length of the sled is 31.5 – 47.2 inches.
The height of the sled is 3.1 – 7.9 inches.
They either have an alpine racing helmet complete with a head guard or a skin-tight speed-suit for racing made specifically for the skeleton sport. The suit is made of a material like the one on shoes. They also have face shields or googles to protect their face. Along with all of that, they can have shoulder and elbow pads under their suits if they want them.
Of course, they also have a sled. I mean, what would the sport be without one?
There aren’t many events to speak of. There is the men’s event and the woman’s event. Like I said; there aren’t many events.
It all started in St. Moritz, Switzerland. Until 1905, the sport was kept only inside of Switzerland. The sport is very similar to cresta sledding. The reason is because skeleton even copied off of it slightly. Well, more than slightly. . . Anyway, the sport was done a lot since 1882, but the first official race was in 1884. Also, as stated in “Basics”, skeleton is done on the same track as bobsled and luge. Another date was 1905. The sports’ rule of having your head in front of your body was in “full force” as Wikipedia stated.
Have you ever happened to wonder why the sport was named what it is? Well, at first the sport was probably just called something like “that one sport with the toboggan”. Later, someone came along changing the look of the toboggan. It resembled the skeleton of the human body and such is the name of the sport: skeleton.
Well, this concludes the project! I hope anyone who read this learned a lot about the sport wrote about in these pages.
Skeleton by Coy
The sport, Skeleton, is very fun, and lots of people play it at the Winter Olympics. It has been around for a very long time. It’s actually not that hard, it just takes some practice. This year the Olympics will be hosted in Pyeongchang South Korea.
You get on your belly, face first, at the end of the sled. You are also going down a ice track so that’s really fast, to get started at the race, you run really fast for 5-6 sec and then jump on the sled.
Your face to will need an alpine racing helmet with a chin guard or a specific skeleton racing helmet. What you want to wear on your body is a skin tight racing speed suit made of uncoated textile material. You will also want to wear googles or a face shield. You will also want to wear shoes with spikes on the bottom for grip. You also need a good sled. The frame must be made of a special material. The material is called steel, but the rest of the sled can be anything.
The sledding sport, Skeleton, originated in St.Mortiz, Switzerland, 1882. In 1887 at the Grand National Competition in St.Mortiz a man name Mr. Cornish introduced the head first tradition. The skeleton riders used the same track as bobsled riders, and luge riders for a very long time. They had a Skeleton game in Sochi 2014, Vancouver 2010, Turin 2006,Salt City Lake 2002, St.Mortiz 1948, and St.Mortiz 1928.
These are the men and woman skeleton events, there are only two events.
Men’s Skeleton: The total weight of the sled and the athlete can not go over 115kg. In case if the weight goes over 115kg, the sled must be changed to 33kg. Even the maximum weight is less than 115kg, the weight of the sled must not be more than 43kg. The weight deficiency can be adjusted by attaching a lead weight on a sled.
Woman’s Skeleton: The total weight of the sled and the athletes cannot be more than 92kg. In case the maximum weight goes over 92kg, the weight of the sled may be adjusted to be 29kg or less.Even if the maximum weight is less than 92kg, the weight of the sled may not be higher than 35kg.The weight deficiency can be adjusted by attaching a lead on the sled.
Now you have read this you must know a lot about skeleton, hopefully you will be able to watch the Winter Olympics, but if you don’t hopefully next year. This Olympic Skeleton project should help you understand if you watch the Olympics.
“Skeleton.”Wikipedia.” https://en.wikipedia.org 5 Feb, 2018.
“Skeleton. “Safari.” olympic.org 5 Feb, 2018.
Bobsledding by Kirstyn
Have you every heard what bobsledding is? If you haven’t, stay tuned and read this informational paper.
Bobsledding is a winter sport. This amazing sport was first played in the 1870’s. To play this sport, you have to have an ice track and you need to be brave. This sport is a combination of luge and skeleton. The tracks were first built in St. Mortiz. In fact the tracks where made before the sleds.
The weight of the bobsled with the equipment and the athletes inside is 390kg. The length of the bobsled is 2.7m. The width of the bobsled is 0.67m. This was the 3rd Olympic Winter Game held in Lake Placid USA in 1932.
The length of the sled is 3.8m. The width of the sled is 0.67kg. The weight of the sled with the equipment and the athletes inside is 630kg. This was the 1st Olympic Winter Games held in Chamonix France in 1924.
The length of the bobsled is 2.7m. The width is 0.67kg. The weight is 325kg.19th Olympic Winter Games Salt Lake City USA 2002
If you would want to be a bobsledder you would need the following: gravity powered bobsled, helmet and winter gear.
The bobsledding sport was invented by the Swiss. This amazing sport began in the 19th century. To make a bobsled, you would use two skeleton sleds and put them next to each other. This sport was first played in 1870. Many people have fallen out of the bobsled and they have gotten severely injured.
Biathlon by Jeff
If you like skiing and shooting, biathlon is the way to go.
The game is where you have to shoot a target 55m away. When you shoot the targets, you have to keep on skiing. If you hit all five targets, your time goes down, but if you miss, your time goes up. The temperature is very cold, but if you slip or fall, you’re out and that’s the end. The rules say that you’re not allowed to push or touch another player. You would know if you hit the target because it changes white to black.
The events for men are 10km,12.5km pursuit,15km, mass start 20km, and 4×7.5km relay. Women’s events are 10km pursuit,12,5km mass start, 15km, 4x6km, relay and 7.5km. The mixed events are mixed relay and single mixed relay.
The equipment is very simple. Here is the list: ski boots, poles, skis, rifles, sights, ammo, warm clothes, arm cuffs, harness, snow covers, and head bands. Equipment is important if they had no warm clothes they would freeze to death.
In 1861, the military had a group of men that were on patrol. They had targets, wooden skis, and poles. They started it by shooting the target and skiing. That’s when the military decided they needed that everywhere. and that’s when the Olympics caught sight of them and decided to make it into a sport. Nernst got a World Cup in 2006. Nernst won and took the best. On February 2014, BjØrdalen won gold for his first time. He started to have a winning streak, he got 8 gold, 2 silver, and 1 bronze. He is the best biathlon contestant ever and he is forty-five now.
The game is very hard and you have to be very skilled. You have to hit a target 55m away. You have to shoot all five targets and you are very sweaty. You have to compete in many races. You need a lot of equipment. You can’t touch a player.
www.Olympic.org biathlon web 2018
www.pyeongchange2018.com biathlon web 2018
www.nbcolympic.com Biathlon Web 2018
www.wikapita.com biathlon web 2018
Speed Skating by Amy
Olympic speed skating is a very dangerous and common sport. Just like figure skating it’s on the ice. When speed skating you are one with the wind. Speed skating is an amazing Olympic sport.
The art of speed skating is very hard. You get very dizzy when you go around and around. When you are racing, sometimes you’re with a group or it’s a single race. The speed skating races are in the short track Olympics. The laps around are usually around 45 – 52 laps. Many gold medalist are hard working men and women. The medals are gold silver and bronze. The 3rd person gets bronze, the 2nd gets silver, and the 1st gets the gold medal. Speed skaters are worked night and day to get there skating perfect. Some skaters get really badly hurt in the races. Professional speed skaters are a very big hit to the Olympics. They are really fun to watch racing.
Men events: 500m, 1,000m, 1,500m, 10,000m, team pursuit, mass start. Women events: 500m, 1,000m, 15,000m, 300m, 5,000, team pursuit, mass start. The speed skating races very from long to short races. They are mostly no more than 50 laps. Though it seems like a lot of skating it really depends. The events are very big pieces when it comes to speed skating . There are so many fast and amazing events I just can’t say them all. The men and the women events are mostly the same but also mostly different.
The equipment they use is: shark skin soot, sunglass goggles, helmet, shin pads, knee pads, neck guard. A shark shoot is a slot that speed skaters wear. It’s like a extra skin. It is wind resistant. Sun googles, and helmets are very important pieces of equipment. They protect your head
Speed skating was founded in Scandinavia, Norther Europe, and Netherland. In the 1400. In 1592 a Scotsman designed a skate with a iron blade. When the people heard about this new iron skate they all wanted one. We would be rich. In 1763 the world saw the first speed skating race. Around and around the track the two competitors raced. By 1851, the North Americans found there those for watching speed skating. Then the 20th century came and boy was speed skating popular. Then came the championships and the Olympics began.
Speed skating is now is popular because of the hard working people who spend forever getting there racing art on. The Olympic speed skating history and the events and the equipment and just the basics are cool but everything else, well it’s all amazing. Thanks for reading.
Luge by Noah
Have you ever heard of the sport Luge? Luge is a very dangerous sport that requires a lot of skill.
Luge was first played in the 1870’s, but was first included in the Winter Olympics in 1964. It was first called “Luge” in 1905, which is French for small coasting sled. The first artificial track in America was completed in 1980 in Lake Placid, New York.
In Luge, lugers lay on their backs with their feet first on a special type of sled. They have to keep their heads low in order to be more aerodynamic. Being aerodynamic is important because the luger’s runs are timed. Lugers can get up to 87 mph on their sleds, but the fastest recorded speed of a luger was 95 mph. There are one person teams and there are also two person teams. When it is a two person team, the second luger lays on top of the other luger. There are artificial tracks and there are natural tracks. Artificial tracks are kept refrigerated so that they do not melt. The events are: Men’s singles, Doubles, Women’s singles, and Team relay.
Lugers wear a skin tight suit that makes them more aerodynamic. They also wear a helmet and a visor that covers the whole face and chin. They use a special sled. The sled has pedals to steer the sled. On their gloves they have finger spikes to help them at the start of their run.
Hopefully, after you have read this, you will know more about Luge.
“Wikipedia. “Luge. Wikipedia 1-27-18/2-5-18.
Cross Country Skiing by Elijah
Cross-Country Skiing is an awesome sport. It has the feel of free skiing, where you can go anywhere where there is snow. It also will make you feel like you want ski as fast as you can. Here are some good facts about Cross-Country skiing.
The race works like this:
There are three parts to it. 1/3 of the track is uphill, 1/3 of the track is level, and 1/3 of the track is downhill. But you can go wherever there is snow. There is five events, counting that woman and men events are the same. They are are named:
Skiathlon: Half of the track, you do classic skiing techniques, and other half the state ski technique.
Sprint: Go as fast as you can for 0.8-1.8 km.
Team Sprint: Like a relay; with people covering 0.8-1.8 km.
Mass Start: Everyone starts at the same time, and all do 30-50 km.
Relay: The first two people in the relay do classic technique and the last two do skate ski technique.
The equipment is one of the most important things in the game. Without it is like wearing a ski suit in a 100º desert, or a running suit in a -85º mountain. That is why equipment is so important. There are two different ski types: The traction skis – they glide on rough snow and landscape. The gliding skis – they glide on smoother, less rough snow and landscape. You have to make sure that you choose the right type of skis because if you had the traction skis in smooth snow, you will just sink. If you use the smooth skis in rough ground, then you will not go anywhere.
The boots are connected to the ski with bindings. The boots have to be warm, comfortable, and snow proof.
The bindings are made of steel and connect to the toe part of the boot.
The poles are made of either carbon-fiber, or aluminum. These light metals could make the poles lighter, and therefore can make the skiier go faster.
The first cross-country skiing race was in Tromso,1843. The race was and is in age intervals. (That means 11 year olds do not race with 22 year olds.). The people did not really like the old skiing technique. That is why the skate ski technique. It is where you mix the classic skiing technique, and the ice skating technique to create a cool, yet hard way to cross country ski.
Wikipedia Cross-Country skiing
Date of visit: 2-6-18
Olympic Cross-Country Skiing
Date of visit: 2-6-18
Pyeongchang 2018 cross-country skiing