2014 Winter Olympics


As part of our writing practice, we have researched and written about the Winter Olympic sports.  We hope you learn from our articles!

Figure  Skating by Mia

Hey do you know about figure skating? Well, after you read this you might know a little more. Don’t worry though, before I learned about figure skating, I didn’t know much about it either.


As you probably know, figure skating is on ice. Figure skating draws from the dance of ballroom dance. Figure skating has many events, ladies’ singles, men’s singles, ice dancing, and pair skating.

Judging Basics

There are two sets of points to get, one is based on the delivery, execution, and difficulty of technical elements. The other set of points is based on the amount of effort, skills, and performance.

Ladies’ and Men’s Singles

The lady or man has to do the program individually, if they choose this event. One phase is called the short dance. The other phase is called freestyle (often called long dance). They sometimes warm up in groups, but their program is done individually.

Ice Dancing

Ice dancing requires spins, lifts, and throw jumps. It doesn’t require a boy and girl to dance together. The dancers are not supposed to separate more than two arm lengths apart from each other. Originally, the dancers weren’t supposed to stay out of each other’s hands. People said that because it’s not pair skating, they thought the dancers should be able to separate. Later, they remade the rule. The dancers must always skate to the music that has a definite beat or rhythm.

Pair Skating

Pair skating requires a man and a woman. It also requires lifts, twist lifts, death spirals, and pair spins. They are not supposed to separate more than one arm length.

Team Event

This event has six skaters from every country perform every other event, Ladies Singles, Men’s Singles, Ice Dancing, and Pair Skating. There would be two skaters for Pair Skating and Ice Dancing, there will be one skater for Ladies, and one for the Men’s Singles. The team with the highest score will win the team event. The event takes three days.


Boots are custom made for the skater’s foot. The boot also has leather on the inside and on the outside of the boot. There is also an ankle brace in the boot. Men usually have black boots while women usually have white boots. The modern blade has a slight curve. Every dancer prefers a different size of heel. There are toe picks on the blade. The toe picks help push up to jump, toe picks also help to pivot during turns and spins. The ice rink is sixty by thirty meters wide. The skater chooses their costume by the type of music.


Jumps involve the skater leaping into air the air and spinning rapidly. Every jump receives a score based on the execution, technique, height, speed, flow, and ice coverage. There are six jumps that count as jump elements. All six jumps are landed by a foot on the right outside edge, but they all have different take offs. The two categories of jumps are toe jumps and edge jumps.


The three main categories of spins are camel spins, sit spins, and upright spins. A spin might be named after the skater who made it up. Skaters receive points for creativity. During the spin, the skater rotates on the round part of the blade.


Before figure skating, there was ice skating (which is still played). In 1572, ice skating became a sport. The first ice club was founded in 1642 in Scotland. Before 1902, women were not allowed to skate in the World Championships. In 1902, a twenty year old woman, Madge Syer, entered the World Championships. She won second place.

So did you learn more? I know I did. We both learned about figure skating basics, judging basics, men’s and ladies singles, ice dancing, pair skating, equipment, jumps, spins, and the history about figure skating. Wasn’t it fun?

Work Cited 

Figure skating. 2014. Online. Wikipedia. Internet. January 30th. 2014. “Available”. en.wikipedia.org 




Curling by Sierra

Curling is a terrific team sport that consists of four players on each team.

Curling Basics

Each team gets eight stones, every player gets two stones. The objective in curling is to be the team to have their stone closer to the target, also known as a tee. The tee is at the end of your rink.

When teams compete in a curling competition the first person on your team is called the lead. The third person on your team is called vice-skip.

One team member lunges the stone across the ice, while the other team member also known as super sweepers, use push brooms to brush the ice in front of the speedy stone. There are two events in Olympic curling, a men’s curling match, and a women’s curling match.

During a match, there is something called an end. Ends are like an inning in baseball. They’re are ten ends in one match, in that time sixteen stones are launched

Curling Equipment

The sport of curling uses a lot of equipment.

Broom– One major piece of equipment is a broom or a brush. There are many types of brooms or brushes, but the most common is a push broom.

Rink–       You can’t play curling without a rink. A curling rink is about five meters wide, that’s about fifteen feet and seven inches, not including a tee (target) and forty-five meters or about one hundred forty-six feet long.

Shoes–      When you curl, there are special kinds of shoes you must wear. Curling shoes should grip to the ice very well. While launching a stone on an extremely slippery surface, you should use your sliding foot.

Stone–     You’ve heard the word “stone” throughout this paper. A stone is made out of super-ultra rare granite. Each stone weighs 19.1 kilograms, that’s about forty-four pounds. To slide on the ice, special workers polish the stone. The earliest stone goes all the way back to 1511.

Curling History

For a long time curling never was included in the Olympic games, but men’s curling was introduced to the Olympic association in 1924. Slippery Sweden won second place that year.   The Olympic committee dropped men’s curling, but luckily brought it back in 1932.

In 1992, women’s curling was brought to the Olympics. In 1998, creative Canada won first place in women’s curling.

During 2005, men’s and women’s curling was separated and held in different parts of the world. At the 2006 Olympics, the first place team was that curling Canada. The second place team was fantastic Finland. Third place was unique U.S.A.

These teams played hard, many lost, and everyone had an excellent, exclusive time.

Curling is an excellent sport. I can’t wait to see more curling in the Olympics.

 Work Cited

Danny, Christian, Arun. Curling. December 02, 2005. Online. Pocantico  Hills School. Internet. Feb. 4 2014. Available.                                                                                                    http://www.pocanticohills.org/Olympic/curlingHtm

King, Kelley. Curling;events. January, tenth 2006. Online. CNNSI.com. Internet. Feb. 4, 2014.                                                                                         http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/Olympic /2002/sport  explainers/curling. Events/

Caithess, Kate. History of Curling. May 1991. Online. World curling federation. Internet. February 03, 2014. http://www.worldcurling.org/history-of-curling.

Curling. Sochi r.u. Online. Internet. February 3 2014. www.Sochi2014.com/en IOC. Equipment and history. Online.  IOC. Internet. February 3 2014.              http://www.olympic.org.




Curling by Dustin

Curling is not as complex as most of the other Olympic sports. The basics, equipment, and the history is in the following:


Curling is played with two teams, each team has four players. It is played by sliding stones across ice. Curling is related to the game of shuffleboard. The way to score points is to get closest to the house center, a circular target at the end of the ice. The teams alternate between players to take shots. The game ends when all eight stones have been delivered. The team captain is called the skip. The turn of the handle, or the curl, causes the rotation of the stone. After the stone is delivered, the sweepers get in front of it and sweep a path for the stone to go farther. Usually the sweepers will be on opposite sides of the stone. Sweeping is allowed anywhere on the sheet or piece of ice until the tee line, the line that starts the target.


Curling also has a lot of history. The earliest report of curling was in Paisley Abbey in medieval Scotland in the years of the sixteenth century. This sport was first played on frozen ponds, marshes, and lakes. Sometimes they played curling on frozen pools some 100 x 250 meters in size. The word “curling” first came up in 1620 in Perth. Men’s curling was included in 1924 Winter Olympics. Curling was a demonstration sport for the 1932, 1988, and 1992 Winter Olympics. Curling is also known as the “roaring game” because the stone makes a sound when it is sliding across the ice. The verb “curl” in Curling means the motion of the stone.


The equipment in curling is cool. The sheet of ice has a length of 146 to 150 feet long, and 14.5 to 16.5 feet wide. The sheet of ice is defined by the World Curling Federation. The curling stone is made out of granite. The stone has to weigh between 38 pounds and 44 pounds. The maximum allowed circumference is thirty-six inches. The minimum height is four and a half inches tall. The granite comes from Trefor Quarry in Wales and Ailsa Craig in Scotland. Granite comes in the shades of pink, blue, and grey. The part of the stone sliding on the ice is the running surface, a narrow ring 0.25 to 0.50 inches wide. The curling broom is used to sweep a path for the stone to go farther. The broom is often used as a balancing aid. Prior to the 1950′s, the  broom was referred to as the “blackjack”

As you can see, curling is not as complex as other sports are, but is very cool!

Work Cited

Curling. 2014.online Wikipedia. Internet February 7 2014. Available en. Wikepedia.org

Curling. 2014. Online olyimpic.org Internet February 7 2014. Available en. olyimpic.org




Freestyle Skiing by Asher

Freestyle Skiing is a sport that takes place in the Winter Olympics. This sport involves the basics, equipment, events, and history.


Some people call this sport hot-dogging. The sport first started in the 1930′s, although it wasn’t contested seriously until the 1960′s through the 1970′s. Some people didn’t want it to be a sport because it was too dangerous. Knee injuries were common and the sport had few rules. New regulations were added in 1979 by the International Ski Federation (FIS) to make the sport’s injuries less common. In the 1992 Olympics, Mogul Skiing was added as an official event while two years later, in 1994, they added Aerials.


The average ski length for moguls skiing men’s is 185cm. 175cm is the average ski length for women’s moguls. For men’s and women’s aerials, the average length is 160cm. Skis have a slight side cut and narrow width.

Ski poles help the skiers with turning, acceleration, and maintaining balance. The terrain for skiing consists of jumps, ruts, and other obstacles. Ski poles help you maneuver through the course.

Skiwear can be sight protection for the skier. The kneepads draw the judge’s eyes to their expertise as in they are a different color then the skier’s suit.

The ski boot used in Olympics is your average ski boot, but is able to withstand the force of landing. In aerials, the athletes go off four meter jumps, or about thirteen feet.

Helmets play a big role in this event. The helmets are made of hard plastic to protect the skier from head injuries in aerials and moguls.


Aerials have two jumps for each competitor. The top twelve men and women will go to the finals. The finals also give each competitor two jumps and whoever has the highest score is the winner. Getting air is worth 20% of the points, the skiers form is worth 50%, and the landing is worth 30%. While flying through the air, the skier will do somersaults and flips after going off a four meter jump, or about thirteen feet.

Moguls is where skiers go down a hill that is usually 775 to 885 feet down or 258 to 295 meters. The skiers go down and hit a jump up to four feet tall. The skier’s knees work like suspension, bouncing with the bumps while their body stays level. Their skis should stay on the ground to keep speed and balance.

In 2012, the skiing halfpipe was added as a sport. This year, the Olympics will also have skiing halfpipe as an event. This sport has also been in the Dew Tour. Peter Olenick holds the record for highest halfpipe jump at twenty-four feet and eleven inches (7.59 meters.) This sport is dangerous compared to other forms of skiing like aerials. During practice runs, air bags are added on the pipes. Bill Owens, a Colorado governor, signed a law that protected ski resorts in injury related lawsuits.


Freestyle skiing started off as a demonstration sport. It started in America, although Norwegian skiers started it doing acrobatics. The skiers usually started going off natural jumps and showing off tricks. Aspen, Colorado, hosted one of the toughest courses in the country. Snowbird, Utah, was home of the first championship in 1975. At the time the sport was first started, the skiers used snowboard parks and tracks. Later, the snowboarders got mad and the skiers had to use their own tracks. Snowboarding is an event in freestyle skiing, but it does have one of its own events, too.

Freestyle skiing is a great way to express yourself on the course.

Work Cited

Freestyleskiing.2014.Olympic.Feb 4.2014.Available  http://www.Olympic.org/sports

 Freestyleskiing.2014.Olympic.Feb 4.2014.Available en.wikipedia.org



Ski Jumping by Meg

Ski jumping is a very, scary sport. Ski jumping is a hard sport and fun, but you have to be a very, very, brave man or woman to try it out.


The history of the ski jumping is interesting and cool at the same time. Did you know you that the origin of ski jumping can be traced back to Ole Rye, who jumped 9.5 meters in 1808 in Norway.  After World War 1, Thulin Thams and Sigmund Ruud developed a new jumping style known as the Kongsberger Technique. This style had the jumper leaning forward. Using this technique, Sepp Bradi of Austria was the first to jump more than a hundred meters. In the mid 1950′s, Swiss jumper, Andreas Daescher, became the first jumper to hold his arms backwards close to the body with a more forward lean.  Ski jumping has been part of the Olympic Winter Games since the first games in Chamonix, Mont-Blanc in 1924.


There are four different events in ski jumping:  men’s normal hill, men’s large hill, teen large hill, ladies normal hill and women’s ski event. They’re all really cool

The normal hill, K point 5, for which the calculation line is found approximately 80-100 meters, (260-330 ft.). Is that not cool, or what?  Did you know the large hill is the most frequently one used and it is used for the most sports, too?  The large hill, K point125- is an event which athletes jump from HS 105.  HS, meaning hill size, just to let you know.  The events take place on a large hill with the HS 140.  The teams consist of four people in total.


– Binding – holds the boot to the skis

– Boots- attached to the skis to allow forward leaning

– Jumping skis- skis that are very long so the skis don’t flip

– Connection cord – a type of cord that helps skis from wobbling

– Ski jumping suit- An aerodynamic thick suit to keep athletes warm and let some air through

Ski jumping is a very scary, fun, and exciting sport, isn’t it? So, try it out if you think you might like it.


Work cited 

IOC – International Olympic Committee.  Sochi.ru2014.  7-23. February 2014.              Online.  Triumphalny passage, 354355, Sochi, AdRussia, 354340 –             Representative office. Internet.  30 Jan. 2014.  Available             sochi2014.com.





Snowboarding by Quinn

Snowboarding is like skateboarding and surfing together. There are ten snowboarding events: Men’s Halfpipe, Women’s Halfpipe, Men’s Snowboard Cross, Women’s Snowboard Cross, Men’s Slopestyle, Women’s Slopestyle, Men’s Parallel Slalom, Women’s Parallel Slalom, Men’s Parallel Giant Slalom, and Women’s Parallel Giant Slalom.


Men’s and Women’s Halfpipe competition is held on a halfpipe that is at an angle and super long. Starting on a hill they get some speed and try to wow the judges with extreme tricks. Whoever gets the most points wins.   In the Men’s and Women’s Parallel Giant Slalom, two athletes go head to head on parallel courses. The athletes with the best results go to the next round, then to the finals. In the finals they do an elimination basis.    The Men’s and Women’s Snowboard Cross competition takes place on a course of obstacles and banks. Two group leaders run the course in an awesome battle to see who goes to the finals. In the finals the groups run for the medals.     In Men’s and Women’s Slopestyle, athletes perform with obstacles like jumps, rails, and quarter pipes. The competition is an elimination system with semifinals and finals with two runs each round. In the Men’s and Women’s Parallel Slalom two athletes descend on parallel courses marked with red and blue flags. The athletes who cover the most distance in the fastest time while following the rules, wins.


Halfpipe board – wide flexible board for tricks and for balance. The way the board is shaped allows you to go backwards and forwards.

Alpine board – narrow and hard which is good for turns and high speed.

Snowboard cross board – made for high speed and flexible to avoid mistakes.

Hard boots – designed for parallel giant slalom and other alpine events.

Soft boots – made for freestyle and free ride.

Helmet – required for athletes in snowboard cross and the halfpipe competition.


The United States held their first championships in 1982. In the late 1970′s, managers of ski resorts allowed it because it brought a lot of business. Snowboarding made its Olympic debut in 1998. The Parallel Giant Slalom first appeared in 2002.

Work Cited

Snowboarding 2014. Snowboarding 2014. Equipment history  2013.February             10th 2014. Online. http://www.omlympic.org/sportshttp://www. Sochi             2014.com/en internet.



Snowboarding by Ben

Snowboarding is an exciting Winter Olympics sport. Snowboarding has interesting equipment, events, and history.

Equipment and Basics

Snowboarding is very much a combination of surfing, skateboarding, skiing, and sledding.  The board has taken slightly different shapes, but it is about the height of the boarder, and wide enough for your feet to be sideways. It is rounded at the top. Your equipment consists of a stiff padded boot, snow pants that are protective and warm, a warm coat, thick protective gloves, and a helmet for safety. You need to wear goggles to protect your eyes from the wind and the sun and the snow. You don’t have poles like skiing, you steer the board with your feet, your hips, and your toes.


This year there are ten snowboarding events: five for the men and five for the women. This year there are four new events.

– Slopestyle is one of the hardest because you’re trying to do the most difficult tricks while trying to get the most altitude.

– Snowboard Parallel Slalom was added for Sochi Winter Olympics. Parallel slalom is when two people race and try to maneuver through closely spaced flags.

– Snowboard cross is like motocross, with moguls, obstacles, banks, and jumps. It is very cool to watch and very exciting.

– Halfpipe is acrobatic aerial tricks.

– Parallel giant slalom is just like parallel slalom, but longer and the track is longer.


The first snowboard was made in 1963. A young man named Tom Sims made a board out of plywood. He called it a ski board. He now has a company that makes snowboards. In 1965, Poppen designed a board called a Snurfer. He bolted two skis together. Later, he added ropes to steer it. In 1979, Jake Burton Carpenter made snowboards out of fiberglass. He also added bindings. In the 80′s, the boards got a steel edge.

The sport gained popularity quickly. In 1996, there were about 2,000,000 snowboarders. In 2000, it went up to 4,000,000. After the first Olympics that held snowboarding as an official sport in 1998, the sport doubled in popularity. Now in 2014, there are about 5.5 million people that snowboard.

Snowboarding is one of the most exciting sports of the Winter Olympics!

Work Cited

Snowboard. 2014. Online. Olympic. Org. Internet 11 feb. 2014. Available www.  olympic.org.

Slope style facts. 2011. Online. Wikipedia. Internet. 11 Feb. 2014. Available www. Wikipedia. Org 1 slope style.




Olympic Hockey by Aidan

Ice Hockey is a very exciting sport, if you know how to play it. If you don’t know a thing about hockey, I guarantee you will learn a thing or two about hockey after this. If you’re a boy or a girl don’t worry, you can still play hockey. The only difference between girls’ and boys’ Olympic hockey is that body checking is not allowed in girls’ hockey.


Hockey is played with three twenty-minute periods. At the end of all the periods, there is a ten-minute break. If it is tied at the end of all three periods, the game goes into overtime. In overtime, they play a normal game until someone scores. The first team to score in overtime wins. If it is still tied at the end of overtime, it goes into a shootout until someone scores. After that, someone is bound to score.

Hockey is typically played six-on-six, including the goalie unless it is a power play. There are two defenders, one left wing, one right wing, one center, and one goalie.

A player body checks another player to slow them down or to steal the puck from them. The body check is very effective. It does hurt though.

A power play is basically when a player gets taken out off the game for a penalty. High sticking and goalie interference are just some of the two -minute hockey penalties. Others like slashing are just some of the five to ten minute penalties.

A slap shot is when a player is about to hit the puck. He or she brings their stick back, then suddenly brings it back forward to hit the puck. This increases the speed of the stick, which causes the puck to go faster and give it more power.

A hat trick goal is when a player gets three goals. These three goals do not need to be consecutive. However, they have to be in the same game. Depending on where you live, like if you live in America, the fans will throw hats on to the rink. If you live somewhere else, they might throw squids on to the rink. 


Rules are very different between Olympic and NHL© Hockey.

First off, fighting is not allowed in Olympic Hockey. I can understand that in Olympics. I can understand that because it’s the Olympics. I mean no types of fighting should be allowed in the Olympics. If players do fight in Olympic hockey, it can lead to a small suspension or a permanent suspension.

Second, Olympic face-offs are different from NHL. Face-offs in the Olympics are when the refs drops the puck fifteen seconds after the two centers have stopped moving their sticks. Long wait, right? Actually it goes by like that!

Freezing the puck is when the goalie lays on the puck to stop the play. That results in a minor penalty. The minor penalty leads to a face-off at the end of the rink where the goalie froze the puck. That gives the opposing team the advantage, so the opposing players don’t have to skate across the whole rink to score.


Goalie equipment includes a goalie helmet (with face mask), leg guards, catching glove, blocking glove, and shoulder pads. The goalie needs to wear a helmet like all players. However, the goalie needs to wear a full face mask. Imagine having a puck zooming past you at 105 km! Well, when hockey first started there were no helmets! Leg guards can be very helpful to a goalie. Forty-five minutes into the game without shin guards, suddenly someone shoots for a goal, you decide to block the puck with your shins…OUCH! A catching glove is a glove used to catch the puck. Catching the puck is the most common thing to do in order to stop the puck. A blocking glove is a glove used to block the puck. If the goalie doesn’t want to block the puck with his shins, he or she uses their blocking glove. Shoulder pads protect the goalie’s chest, shoulders, stomach, and back. Sometimes the goalie uses their shoulder pads to defend the puck. Shoulder pads protect the player’s shoulders, stomach, back, and chest. It’s funny they’re only called shoulder pads and not upper body pads. The shoulder pads or “upper body pads” are very useful, especially when a player is body checked. A helmet protects the player’s head. Helmets are made of plastic with extra padding on the inside. Players need to wear helmets. Visors are transparent plastic shields attached to the front of the player’s helmets. Male players born after December 31,1974 are required to wear a visor. Weird rule, right? Shin guards protect the players shins and calves. They are made of plastic, rubber, and padding on the inside. Players use gloves to protect their hands. Also, they are used to prevent their hands from freezing. Your hand would really hurt after a freezing game of hockey with players hitting your hands with their sticks. Sticks are made of wood, metal, or aluminum. Sticks are long rods with a curve at the end to hit the puck. Hockey could not be played without sticks.


Hockey first originated in Canada during the 19th century. That explains why the Canadians are so good at hockey. Did you know that “hockey” comes from the French word “hocquet”? In 1860, a ball was substituted for a puck. Wouldn’t that be hard to play with a ball? We’re lucky we still don’t play with a ball. That would be hard. Hockey was first introduced in the Olympics during the 1920 Summer Games. Isn’t that odd? It’s very cool, yet very odd…

Hockey is a very fun sport. If you haven’t played hockey before, then you might want to try it. You will love it! After this I hope you learned a thing or two about hockey.

Works Cited

IceHockey.2014.Olympic.Feb 8.2014.available http://www.Olympic.org/sports.

 IceHockey.2014.Olympic.Feb 8.2014.available http://www.sochi2014.com/en




Nordic Combined by Wally

Most Olympics are extremely amazing, but Nordic Combined is probably the most unique. There is plenty of equipment to keep the contestants safe and the sport also includes a ton of history. Within everything, there are three men events.


Don’t get confused with the sport though, Nordic Combined is a mix between two sports (those sports are cross country skiing and ski jumping).  When the sport began, it was first played in 1892. Later, it became an Olympic sport in 1924.


The sport is pretty stunning when it’s loaded with its three events, the Individual, the Sprint, and finally, the Team. Individual is pretty astonishing because there is only one contestant. The competitor goes down a 90 meter jump, which is followed by a 15 km cross-country. Up next is the Sprint, this competition is unique because it lasts two days. On the first day, athletes go off the large ski jump once, which includes the normal ski jumping rules. On the second day, contestants ski jumping scores determine where the athletes start on the cross-country race. Remember, whoever crosses the finish line first, wins. Finally comes the Team, this event consists of a 90-m ramp to start and a 4×5-km cross-country race, a bonus for each and every skier is that they can use any style they want for the event.


There is plenty of great modern equipment to keep the athletes safe, and the list is almost too long to count. The most important piece of equipment are the skis. They are the best thing because one, they make you increase speed by a ton, and second, they increase stability when the contestant is in midair. Another must-have is glide wax, this is a special spray (or cube) that you would rub (and or spray) on every part on the bottom and edges of your ski to insure that you slide as fast as possible across the snow.

Another piece of the equipment is the connection cord. This amazing piece is like a rubber cord that attaches the boot to the ski which stabilizes the ski during flight. With your skis on and ready, now you need a ski suit, this piece of equipment is crucial, every single part of it has to be made out of the same material, with this, you are more aerodynamic by an extreme amount.


This magnificent sport has about as much history as possible. Today there are four people per team, but strangely, there used to be only three people. At first, people would use this type of equipment for hunting game up in the north, or to gather firewood extremely quickly. Before it became an Olympic sport, people would have festivals, and the largest and people’s favorite was the Nordic Combined Festival in 1892. After a while, the sport changed because of the Gunderson method which is simply the rule of whoever crosses the finish line first wins. Overall, this men’s sport has been going for an astonishingly long time.

This is a great sport with interesting equipment, specialized skill, and unique requirements.

Work Cited

Nordic Combined. 2013.Online. olympic.org. Internet. 7 Feb 2014. Available http://www.Olympic.org/sports.

Nordic Combined. 2014.Online. sochi2014.com. Internet. 6 Feb 2014. Available http://www.Sochi2014.com/en.



Short Track by Sofija

If your skates like to go a supersonic, pronto, swift speed then you will be a strong and stupendous short track speed skater. In short track, you have to shift your weight when the turns occur on the track.


The track is not an ordinary speed skating track. The skaters must speed around on a 112.12 meter, oval ice track. This 60 meters by 30 meters track is the same as the international sized hockey rink. On the track, eight heats of four compete in the individual events. There are also relays on the terrific track. Eight teams of four skaters rip, roar, and go at a rapid speed around the track. The  skaters are so close together that a lot of skaters get injuries which is why the walls of the oval track that short track speed skaters race on, is padded.


Short track speed skaters compete against each other and not against the clock. Short track speed skating introduces the elements of strategies, bravery, and skill for racing that many other sports don’t offer. Short track skaters try to outwit and out skate their competitors. Short track racing eliminates skaters in heats.


In men’s events, they must use rigor. Their events are: 1000m individual, 1500m individual, 500m individual, and a 5000m relay. All the athletes will probably choose all the events because they worked so hard on getting to the Olympics. The women’s events are: 1000m individual, 1500m individual, 500m individual, and a 3000m relay.


Some of this equipment is so crucial that without the equipment, short track speed skaters would be in a lot more pain then they already are, and might even die. The equipment is very important.

Gloves- The gloves protect the skater’s hands from sharp blades. They are very important around a curve. They help keep your balance when the skaters swoop down like an eagle and glide with their gloves against the ice. Gloves also help so skaters don’t collide around a curve.

Goggles- Goggles are not required in short track. Competitors do, however, wear goggles to protect their eyes from the wind. Goggles also protect skaters from ice chips.

Helmet- A helmet is very necessary. Helmets prevent head injuries. The skater’s number is on the helmet. If the skater has goggles, they can choose to put them under or on top of the helmet.

Protective wear- Protective wear decreases the amount of injuries or chills a skater has. Knee, shin, or neck guards protect skaters from the blades in front of them.

Skates- The skates are the whole reason why this sport involves skating, so they are the most important pieces of equipment. Skates are boots, but the laces come up high. For skaters, a customized foot mold is the most comfortable. The skates stabilize the foot and ankle around corners. They also grip ice around turns, but they are still likely to slip. The blade of the skate is placed off-center on the left side so when a skater triumphantly turns, the boot will not touch the ice. The blades are extremely sharp and are bent in at an arc that reflects the direction of the turn. The boots are made of graphite, fiberglass, and Kevlar.

Skin-Tight Suit- The skater wants to be as fast as possible and with the skin-tight suit, they can be. The skin-tight suit is influential. Customized suits reduce the wind resistance, so the wind is not as powerful as a tornado when they skate.


Short track began in Canada and the USA where mass start competitions were held on an oval track in 1905-1906. There was lack of a 400 meter track, so North American skaters practiced on an ice rink. The sport of short track didn’t participate internationally before the ISU (International Skating Union) recognized short track as a sport. In 1967, short track was declared as an official sport, but internationally wasn’t held until nine years later in 1976. After short track was a demonstration sport at the 1988 Winter Games in Calgary, short track became part of the Olympic program in 1992 with two individual events and two relays in both women’s and men’s events. In 2006, the Olympic Games in Turin had included all eight events. Also in 2006, South Korea was the nation to beat winning six gold medals.

Short track speed skating is a thrilling, chilling, and thriving sport. Short track takes bravery, courage, and skill.

Work Cited

Short track speed skating. 2013. Online. Official website of the Olympic Movement.Internet. 4 Feb. 2014. Available http:// www.olympic.org/sports/speed           skating/.skating/videos photos new event records.

Short Track. 2014. Online. Sochi 2014 Olympics.Internet. 4 Feb. 2014. Available http://www.sochi2014.com/en/short track.

Short track speed skating at the Winter Olympics. 2014. Online. Wikipedia. Internet. 4 Feb. 2014. Available en.wikipedia.org/short track speed skating.



Skeleton by Jaden

Skeleton is a great winter sport. There are three things to skeleton: basics, history, and the equipment. You might be wondering how skeleton got its name. Well, early frames bore a vague resemblance to a skeleton and that is how it got its name.

I hope you like skeleton after this!


If you love sledding, you will love skeleton. Skeleton is very basic: you slide on a sled with your belly, but you go at least 90mph. so that is why barely anyone does skeleton. There are two events: men’s singles and women’s singles. The tracks are 1814 meters long. I wonder how much they practice to get ready for the Winter Olympics?


Skeleton is a great sport, but the history goes way back. Sledding is one of the oldest sports in history. People thought about it in 1882 and continued ever since. Skeleton was contested at the Olympics in St. Moritz in 1928. It was discontinued after 1948. It wasn’t brought back to the Olympics until 2002 at Salt Lake City.


If people go ninety miles per hour, you might be wondering about the equipment. The brakes are very important right? Well, on the sleds, there are no brakes! Some people spin out and hit the wall and some people just jump off the sled and take their sled with them when they jump.

Gloves are very important and skeleton gloves are very thick and great for the winter. The gloves help them if they get hurt or if they get frostbite. Their gloves are usually made of leather and stuffing, the stuffing is really helps the athletes. I hope you watch the Winter Olympics so you can see the gloves.

Maybe you might be wondering about the sled. Well, the sled is very basic, but it was hard to figure out how to build it back then! The sled is made of two runners, the frame must also be made of steel, so it is all fair. If it is not made of steel, someone would get disqualified! I wonder if anyone will get disqualified in this Winter Olympics. The sled also must be forty-three kg for men and thirty-five kg for women. Handles are very important. Athletes use them for the push off in the beginning. People hold on to the handles and take ten to fifteen steps before they hop onto the sled, that is how they get going in skeleton. Some people just jump on their sled and go down. See what they do and watch the Winter Olympics.

What if they fall and crack their heads? Well, they can’t because they are wearing helmets. Racers must wear a helmet for them to be able to race. Their suits are under their helmet for a little bit of help

Skeleton is an awesome Olympic sport. See what they do and watch the Winter Olympics.

Work Cited 

olympic.org. 2013. Online. Olympic. Internet. 2-10-2024. Available at http://www.olympic.org/sports

wikipedia.org. 2001.Online. wikipedia. Internet. 2-11-2014. Available at http://www.olympic.org.




Bobsledding by Wisdom

How would you like to go down a slope of ice at 100 mph? That is what bobsledding will do to you.


One piece of required equipment is a bob-driven sleigh. It consists of a main hull, a front and rear axle, a frame, and two sets of independent steel runners. There are different kinds of sleds. Some are two-man, and some are four-man sleds. The driver drives the sled with his fingers, using rings that are attached to a steering mechanism by ropes.

– The players wear a specially made high-tech plastic composite helmet. It helps stop head injuries.

– Shoes are made of synthetic material. There are spikes on the souls for traction at the push of the start.

-The two-man sled is 374 pounds, including the crew it is about 858 pounds.

-The four-man sled is 462 pounds, with the crew it is about 1,386 pounds.

-The women’s sled is 374 pounds, with the crew it’s about 750 pounds.


First of all, there are three kinds of events: two-men’s, four-men’s, and women’s heat. The top three countries are Germany, Switzerland, and the United States. Bobsledding is a winter sport in which teams of two or four athletes run down twisting, narrow, slopes made of ice. There is a wall of ice to protect them from falling off. It doesn’t always work.

A team of four has to have two pushers, one brakeman, and one driver. At the start of a race, every member pushes. Bobsleds can go up to 180 mph, but usually they go sixty to ninety mph. The run is about 1,500 meters long. The run has about fifteen or twenty turns. The National Olympic Committee (NOC) may qualify up to three sleds in each event. A maximum of 12 bobsledders may enter in the men’s competition. Six women may be entered in the women’s competition.  All of the bobsled events will consist of four turns timed electronically to 1/100 of a second.


  Bobsledding started in 1889. In 1928, there were four to five men who entered on bobsled teams in the Olympics.  Europeans won their first gold in 1932. Americans entered the Olympics with the British.  In 1994, there was a tie between Italy and Canada, but Australia took the Gold. Switzerland won the Olympics in 1992 and 1999.  Women teams did not enter the Olympics until 1999. Europe has held over a hundred runs in bobsledding events in the Olympic Games over the years.

Thank you for reading about the best winter sport in the world, in my opinion.

Work Cited

Bobsled.2014.online.Olympic.Feb 7.2014.Available http://www.sochi2014.com/en

Bobsled.2014.online.wikipedia.Internet.Feb 7.2014.Available en.wikipedia.org




Biathlon by Michael

If you like cross country skiing and calm marksmanship (shooting), then the sport, biathlon, is for you. There are so many things to write about biathlon, like its equipment, past medalists, history, events, and its basics.


In the sport biathlon, there are tons of equipment. The biathlete has to have an arm sling to stabilize the rifle. A fore sight is a required piece of equipment, it’s a marker people some times call a dot sight. The rear sight is also included in the sport biathlon. It’s a clear cylinder that magnifies to see the target. A clip is to hold the bullets and is located in the gun. The biathlete needs a magazine to hold the clips, it can hold up to four clips. Ski poles are to stabilize the biathlete when doing the loops. You need skis obviously for this sport. Wax is needed for gliding when doing the loops. A ski suit is also submitted for this activity. The athlete needs it to reduce wind impact. Ski boots with more ankle support are used. Targets are also a piece of equipment used, they have little tin foil circles the size of a coin. Aren’t those tons of equipment?

Past Medalists

There are many medalists in the sport, biathlon. Ole Einar Bjoerdalen is a biathlon miracle. He has gotten one gold and one silver medal at Vancouver. In Turin, he got two silver and one bronze. At Salt Lake City, he went all out and got four gold medals. In Nagano, he got one gold and one silver. That is what Ole Einar has done so far. Ricco Gross is a German biathlon hero. In Turin, he got one gold. At Salt Lake City, he got one silver and one bronze. In Albertville, he got one gold and one silver. At Nagano, he got one gold. Sver Fischer is also from Germany. At Turin, he got a surprising two golds and one silver. In Salt Lake City, he got two silver medals. At Nagano, he got one gold. In Lillehammer, he got one gold and one bronze. That is all for the past medalists.


In the sport, biathlon, there are a lot of historical things. The word “biathlon” comes from the Greek word meaning two contests. The sport was known to be held as early as the eighteenth century. Its origination is in Norway and Scandinavia. The first game held was in the Winter Olympics in 1948. Those are some of the historical things in this sport.


The events in the sport, biathlon, are men’s, woman’s, and mixed. For men’s there’s: the ten kilometers, twelve and a half kilometers pursuit, fifteen kilometers mass start, the difficult twenty kilometers race, and last, but not least, the seven and a half kilometers relay. Women’s events are the same other than the 4×6 kilometers race. There’s a mixed event, too. It is the mixed relay. Those are the events.


There are many basics in the sport, biathlon. It’s a sport of action. It’s a sport of pressure. The biathlete has to shoot and do a cross-country ski race. They have to shoot in different positions, they are both prone and standing up. When shooting, if the targets are still standing, they have to do a penalty loop. It takes about 150 meters. Those are some of the many basics.

The sport, biathlon, is the sport for you!

Work Cited

Biathlon.2013.Online. olympic.org.Internet. 11Feb. 2014. Available www.olympic.org/biathlon

Biathlon.2014.Online. Wikipedia.org.Internet. 11Feb. 2014. Available en.wikipedia.org/biathlon






Biathlon by Rylan

If you like shooting and skiing, Biathlon is for you.


Bio means two events: skiing and shooting. Biathlon has many skills. They play by skiing cross-country with a .22 rifle on their back. They stop at shooting areas and shoot five bullets. They have to complete all of the targets in 150 seconds. If they miss, they have to do an extra lap. There are penalty laps, such as they could have another minute on the clock. They shoot both prone and standing up. The game is scored by hitting the targets and their time spent skiing. If they spend too much time, they lose.


It was a demonstration sport in the 1948 at the Winter Games in St. Moritz. It was officially in the Winter Games of 1960. Until the 1972 games in lnnsbruck, it was just comprised of the individual race and a relay.


– A harness is used to carry the rifle while he or she is skiing. A clip, also called a magazine, is used to hold five .22-caliber rifle bullets. There only can be four clips stored in the rifle stock. They can use the clips as needed. The fore sight is a marker to align the shot. A rear sight magnifies the target.

– The skis are shorter and stiffer and the tips curve less than downhill skis. The wax is applied to the under surface.

– Ski poles are stiffer than downhill skis. They go to the chin or mouth.

– The ski boots have more ankle support then classic skiing boots.

– The suit prevents wind affecting the skier.


The Events are:

– 10km women’s pursuit

– 12.5km men’s pursuit

– 10km men’s

– 15km women’s

– 20km men’s

– 4 x 7.5km men’s relay

– 4 x 6km women’s relay

– Women’s 12.5km mass start

– 15K men’s mass start

– Mixed relay where there are two men and two women on a team.

I really think this is a cool sport. I hope you do, too.

 Work Cited

Biathlon. 2014. Online. olympic.org.Internet. Feb 4. 2014. Available http://www.olypic.org/sports

Biathlon.2014. Online. Wikipedia.Internet. Feb 4. 2014. Available en.wikipedia.org




Speed Skating by Brooklyn

Speed Skating is a very challenging sport! There are some basics to Speed Skating, there is quite a bit of equipment, and the history goes way back in time!


There are a lot of basics to Speed Skating. Did you know that Speed Skating started on frozen lakes and rivers? There is one different type of Speed Skating: Short Track Speed Skating which is treated as its own sport. There are different ways of starting the race: individually or eight people at a time. While you’re on the ice you usually go up to sixty-one miles an hour. The ice rink is shaped like an oval and the rink is 400 meters. In the stadium, there can be 8,000 spectators. When you are on the ice you have to hunch your back over. When you are on the starting line you don’t want to make a false start, if you get three false starts, you will be eliminated. When you are skating, you move in a clockwise direction on the ice. That is all for the basics!


There are many events to Speed Skating! First, there is men’s 500 meter which is the only event that has two races! There’s the men’s 5,000 meter which they do 121/2 laps of. There is the men’s 10,000 meter which they do 25 laps of. The last one for the men’s is team pursuit. There is also a lot of events for women. First, there is the team pursuit. Next, there’s the 500 meter and 5,000 meter. Then there’s the 3,000 and 1,500 meter. Finally, there is the 1,000 meter. Those are all the events for Speed Skating.


There are five things you need to wear in Speed Skating. First there are armbands. The skaters on the outer line wear a red band. The skaters on the inner line wear a white band. There are also glasses. The glasses speed skaters wear aren’t the kind you wear around all day. The glasses protect your eyes from the wind and the ice. The glasses also have a special tint to keep the light out. The next thing is the clap skate. The clap skate is not attached on the end like a regular skate. The tip of the skate is hinged. When a skater lifts up his/her skate, the bottom of their skate lifts up and increases their power. The skate has a spring in the back that makes it bounce back up. The skate makes a clap noise and that is how it got its name. The blade forms a straight line. Men’s skate blades are usually forty-two to forty-six cm long. When your blade is longer, the more an obstacle it becomes for the skaters. Finally, there is the racing suit. The skin tight suit decreases air resistance. That is all of the equipment.


There is quite a bit to learn in history in Speed Skating. Did you know that skates for Speed Skating were made out of bones at first? When it was the sixteenth century, ice skating became a sport. In 1642, there was the first Speed Skating official club. In 1850, they made a steel blade on a skate. In 1889, there was the first Speed Skating championships. In the twentieth century Speed Skating became a major sport. There are three famous Americans in Speed Skating: Bonnie Blair, Eric Heiden, and Dan Jansen. That is all of the history.

Speed Skating, all in all, is a very challenging sport and it is very fun. That is what Speed Skating is about. Hope you enjoyed reading all about it!

Work Cited

Speed Skating. 2014. Online. Wikipedia. Internet. February 4th. 2014.Available wikipedia.com



Alpine Skiing by Madi

Alpine Skiing is a sport played in the Winter Olympics where the athlete is racing downhill on skis. There are ten events in this sport: five for men, and five for women. There isn’t much difference in the ten events, though.

Basic Concept

If someone drops a ball downhill at any point given, the ball will follow the path of least resistance (fall line). An athlete following the fall line will reach maximum speed for that slope, but this is often dangerous because of the speed.


Downhill: Downhill has the longest courses and highest speed. Sometimes these athletes gain speeds up to 120 km/h. The fastest skier wins.

Slalom: Skiers have to ski courses marked with flags and gates spaced close together. Athletes must ski two courses. The sum of their results makes up the total time.

Giant Slalom: Gates in courses are spaced farther apart than in Super Giant. In men’s races there are 56-70 gates, in women’s there are 48-58 gates.

Super Giant: Super Giant is a mix of Giant Slalom and Downhill. In Super Giant (Super-G), athletes get speed as high as in Downhill, but have courses similar to in Slalom.

Super Combination: This incorporates both Downhill and Slalom. Sometimes Super-G replaces Downhill in this event.


Boots: Reinforced boots are specific to competition. Raising of the boot sole is permitted to increase the ability to pressurize downwards the skis of the skier.

Gloves: A skier’s gloves are made of leather/synthetic material. Slalom gloves have plastic forearm guards to protect the athlete when they ski through gates.

Helmet: A helmet is probably a must have for skiers in Alpine Skiing!

Goggles: Skiing goggles help protect an athlete’s eyes from weather, etc.

Poles: In Downhill and Super-G events, the poles are curved to fit around the body. However, in other events, the poles are straight.

Skis: The skis are made of different types of material (wood, and composite fibers) specialized for the wear and tear during the races.

Ski Suit: Athletes wear skin-tight suits to reduce air resistance.

Bindings: Bindings help the ski and boot stay attached to each other.


Alpine Skiing first came in the year of 1936 in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany. In 1952, at the games held in Oslo, only three events were rewarded medals: Slalom, Giant Slalom, and Downhill. In 1988, in the Calgary Olympic Games, Super-G was added.

I hoped you learned a lot about Alpine Skiing and are looking forward to watching the Winter Olympics! Thanks for reading.



Work cited

Internet Olympic Committee. Sochi.ru2014.   7-23 February 2014. Online. Triumphalny Passage, 354355, Sochi, Russia, 354340 – Representative office. Internet. 30 Jan.2014. Available Sochi2014.com



Luge by Tyler

The winter sport named luge is named from the French word for sled. Luge is one of the most dangerous Olympic sports. Depending on how a sled is built, it can reach a speed of up to over 140 km/h, or 87 mph.



The Olympic sport, luge, is relatively new, but sled racing is one of the oldest Olympic sports. The first use of sleds as an organized sport took place in 1883 in Switzerland. Luge was first included in the Olympic games in 1964. At first the Americans were very slow to adopt the sport of luge. The first American Olympic track was not completed until 1980 at Lake Placid, New York. The second track that was constructed was near Park City for the 2002 Winter Olympics at Salt Lake City.


In the sport luge, athletes lay on their backs with their feet first. They need specially designed suits. The athletes steer with flexible runners responding to just slight leg movements.

There are two kinds of tracks: natural and artificial. The natural luge tracks are adapted to the existing mountain roads and paths. Artificial tracks use man-made banks and refrigeration. People at the Winter Olympics polish the ice so a sled can go faster and it is not so bumpy. In the sport luge, the men’s track is 1198 meters long. The women’s track is 953 meters long.

For the sport luge, there are four disciplines (activities): men’s singles, men’s doubles, women’s singles, and team relay



– Athletes need a special designed suit so it will reduce wind resistance to make them go faster.

– The sport of luge also requires special designed gloves that are spiked on the fingertips that dig into the ice to assist the rider as they start.

– They also need a helmet with clear or tinted visors that extend under the chin to reduce wind resistance.

– Athletes also use a specially designed pair of shoes that typically have firm outer soles. These are really soft soles and are often called calypso.

Luge is a really cool sport to learn about. It is also very dangerous.

Work Cited 

Luge.2014. Online olympic.org.  Internet February 12 2014. Available en. Olympic.org

Luge.2014. Online sochi2014.com. Internet February 12 2014. Available en.Sochi.com

Luge.2014. Online wikipedia.org. Internet February 12 2014. Available en. Wikipedia.org



Cross-Country Skiing